A number of different fitness measurement instruments have been discussed over the years on the list. These include various types of progressive shuttle runs, in which players are made to run back and forth over a measured distance at ever-increasing speed until they can no longer continue, and the Cooper Test, which is a simple measure of how far a player can run in 12 minutes. Progressive shuttle types include two commercial versions, the Léger Test (developed by Luc Léger of the University of Montreal) and Jens Bangsbo's "yo-yo" test; and a non-commercial test developed by Ian Birtwell for the Canadian national rugby programme which is run over 40m (the Léger test is run over 20m).
We also provide a link to a document, not prepared by a list member but reproduced with permission, on how to set up a rigorous fartlek training programme (the word "fartlek" is Swedish for "speed play" and refers to a programme of mixed exercises conducted in the open air).
Date: Wed, 2 Oct 1996 12:09:16 +0100 From: David Graham
Further to the comments of a few days ago on physical norms, here are some items culled from an excellent book I bought in France called "Football: preformation et formation" [Soccer: pre-training and training] by Bernard Turpin; Paris: Editions Amphora S.A., 1993. The "pre-training" refers to U15 players and the "training" to U17. Turpin gives a quite detailed training programme obviously intended for elite players in these age groups, and in addition to suggestions for technical and tactical practices provides quite a few norms, of which here are a few: Activity U15 U17 =============================================== Rope-climbing 5m/10 sec 5m/12 sec (arms & legs) (arms only) Skipping 3 x 30 sec 2 x 30 sec (R foot, L foot, (R/L alternate, feet together) hands crossed) Sprint 10m / 1.8 sec 20m / 3.1 sec 40m / 5.3 sec 40m / 5.1 sec 60m / 7.7 sec 60m / 7.4 sec Shuttle run 9 sec 8.8 sec (goal line or goal post to 6-yd line and back, then to 18-yd line and back, i.e. 48 yds w/ 3 turns) 5 strides (2m start) 16m 20m Cooper run (12 min) 3400m 3600m Luc Leger test level 13-14 15-16 Juggling (1 loss of control permitted in the 30m run) - R foot 100 100 - L foot 100 100 - Alt feet 100 100 - Head 100 100 - 30 m run 6 sec 5 sec Hope these are useful. There are shooting norms too, if anyone's interested. I presume these were established for male players. Another very good book, "Programme annuel d'entrainement de football" ("Yearly soccer training/practice programme") by M. Vanierschot (Brakel, Belgium: Sportboeken - Broodcoorens Michel, n.d.), describes a useful 500m shuttle run which we have used quite a bit. A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 Separation is 10m between cones. Players start at A0 and run to A1 and back, then to A2 and back, and so on until they reach A5, at which point they run to A4 and back to A5, then to A3 and back to A5 and so on until they reach A0 again. We used this last year with U15A as a warmup run, beginning with a time of about 2'20" and increasing speed to 2'00, having players take their pulse immediately after the runs to ensure they were in their target zone. By way of comparison, Vanierschot gives 2'00 as the target time for lower-division professionals in his Belgian team. He reproduces a table with actual times throughout the season, which shows an actual low time of 1'48" and a high time of 2'11" (for different players at different times during the season). By way of comparison, we had a U17A team run 5 field lengths (about 500m) last night at the end of practice, stipulating that everyone had to beat 2'00. Times ranged from 1'28" to 1'48" (but this involves far fewer turns than the shuttle run shown above, of course).
Date: Wed, 21 May 1997 17:41:03 -0330 From: David Graham
For everyone who was asking about how to get testing materials for the 20m Leger shuttle run, I have just received the details of the materials making up the current version of the Leger Test. Here's the scoop on the various options: 1) The Fitness Appraisal Kit Includes: 3 audio cassettes, lung volume measurement device (aka plastic bag? :-), fat caliper, manual, record keeping sheets, questionnaire ($35.00 Cdn) 2) FiTest - "a condensed version of the Fitness Appraisal Kit" ($25.00 Cdn) 3) FiTest video - "a learning tool to help you take the Fitness Evaluation" ($15.00 Cdn) These items can be ordered from: Fitness Appraisal Certification and Accreditation Program FACA-Quebec Universit» de Montr»al D»partement d'»ducation physique CP 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville Montr»al, QC Canada H3C 3J7 Tel. 514-343-2471 Fax 514-343-2181 Email firstname.lastname@example.org Hope this is useful! Cheers, DG
Performance Conditioning for Soccer sells this test. Here's an excerpt from their blurb: "Soccer physiologist Jens Bansbo of the August Krough Institute, Copenhagen, has developed three tests that use the movement patterns of soccer to measure fitness levels of players using only field markers, stop watch and cassette player. Audio tapes control the speed at which players run back and forth to fatigue. Each tape has two levels; side one beginning, side two advanced. Tested are: intermittent endurance,-test your stop/start endurance intermittent recovery-test your recovery ability from repeated sprints and endurance-find your VO2 max in as little as 5 minutes. The booklet contains an easy-to-use description of the tests, charts to convert results as well as measure your own progress and test results from elite European soccer players. "
In response to those who were asking about it, here's how to run a 40m shuttle run fitness test. A C | | | | | | |<------------ 40 m ------------->| | | | | | | | | B D X Y Players line up on line AB. Coaches stand at X and Y: one blows whistle at times indicated below, the other calls out the level and rep currently being run (i.e. "Level 1, rep 2". On signal (whistle or beep) players run to CD, pause and start back on next signal. *NOTE: They must be within 1 stride of the finishing line when the whistle sounds in order to continue -- otherwise they drop out and record the last level successfully completed (or the level on which they dropped out: it doesn't matter as long as you're consistent).* The amount of time given to complete each 40m repetition (=1 rep) is constant within a given level (levels consist of a varying number of reps), but decreases as the run progresses, so that it becomes increasingly difficult to keep up. This test is best used several times over the course of the season (beginning in pre-season) and you may want to set targets for your players to achieve. We have found that our fittest players at U15 tend to get up to about 6.2 or thereabouts (i.e. Level 6, rep 2). I understand that national U20 rugby players reach the neighbourhood of 7.4 (depending on body type and position played). This test is best run at the end of a fairly light practice because it is exhausting. It does not take long to complete, however (less than 10 minutes from start to finish). This test should not be used with pre-pubertal athletes, IMO. Following completion of the test, players are asked to record the level at which they could no longer complete the run. This information is kept on file and compared with subsequent runs to produce a cumulative record of fitness. Here are the times at which the whistle is to sound: Level Rep Time ------------------------------------ 1 (16"/rep) 0 0 <-- i.e. start 1 16" 2 32" 3 48" Duration of level 1: 2 min 4 1'04" 5 1'20" 6 1'36" 7 1'52" 2 (14"/rep) 1 2'06" 2 2'20" 3 2'34" 4 2'48" 5 3'02" Duration of level 2: 2 min 6 3'16" 7 3'30" 8 3'44" 9 3'58" 3 (12"/rep) 1 4'10" 2 4'22" 3 4'34" 4 4'46" 5 4'58" 6 5'10" Duration of level 3: 2 min 7 5'22" 8 5'34" 9 5'46" 10 5'58" 4 (10"/rep) 1 6'08" 2 6'18" 3 6'28" Duration of level 4: 1 min 4 6'38" 5 6'48" 6 6'58" 5 ( 9"/rep) 1 7'07" 2 7'16" 3 7'25" Duration of level 5: 1 min 4 7'34" 5 7'43" 6 7'52" 6 ( 8"/rep) 1 8'01" 2 8'09" 3 8'17" 4 8'25" Duration of level 6: 1 min 5 8'33" 6 8'41" 7 8'49" 8 8'57" 7 ( 7"/rep) 1 9'04" 2 9'11" 3 9'18" 4 9'25" Duration of level 7: 1 min 5 9'32" 6 9'39" 7 9'48" 8 9'55"
Date: Wed, 19 Feb 1997 10:09:30 +0000 From: Juan Manuel Arrieta Ugarte
Subject: Cooper Test, Tables of Results The Cooper test give an idea of the aerobic capacity (maximum consumption of oxygen, VO2max(ml/kg/minute) of a person by measuring the distance run in 12 minutes. VO2max = 0.17((X/12)-133) + 33 Where X is the distance in meters. The data below (Male data) has been kindly provided by Gonzalo Abando, Physical Trainer of the Athletic Club of Bilbao, a profesional club founded in 1898. The test is made in a Soccer field with soccer shoes and the track is a rectangle of 100x50. So, when the test is made is regular track (400mts) and with proper equipment, the results should be increased by a 10% at least. Juvenil de 3 ano (18 years old, U18?) Mtrs. VO2max Index 3300 62.3 10 3200 60.2 9 3100 58. 8 3000 55.5 7 and so on. (17 years old) 3200 10 3100 9 and so on. (16 years old) 3100 10 3000 9 and so on Cadetes de 2 ano (15 Years old) 3000 10 2900 53.3 9 2800 51.3 8 2700 49 7 and so on (14 Years old) 2900 10 and so on. Infantiles de 2 ano (13 years old) 2800 10 and so on (12 Years old) 2700 10 2600 46.5 9 2500 44.6 8 and so on. Obviously the index is not a closed one, sometimes you can found a young that can index 12 in his group of age, but anyway you can control his/her development. This index is related with the best players in our region. Any feedback will be wellcome. Salud. Juan Manuel Arrieta Departamento de Quimica Inorganica Facultad de Ciencias Universidad del Pais Vasco-E.H.U. Apdo 644, 48080 Bilbao Spain Voice: 34-4-4647700 Ext. 2981 Fax : 34-4-4648500 E-mail: email@example.com
Date: Tue, 1 Oct 1996 10:45:59 -0300 Sender: Soccer Coach Mailing List
From: Mourad Farid Subject: Re: Player Performance (speed) On Sept 27th, Perrone Ford Wrote: >>H.S. Female - Varsity >> >> I was wondering if any of you coaching this age players might indulge >>me your players' performance numbers in the following areas: >> >>40yd dash >>400 meters >>mile I don't know if what follows will be of any help to you but here are the figures for two fitness tests taken this summer. U19 BOYS SELECT - (Cooper Type 12 minute run Test)- Conducted at mid-season. SETUP: on a 400 meter running track. Cones are place at 100 Meter intervals, thus 4 cones for the full track. On signal players start their run attempting to complete as many laps as possible in the 12 minute time limit. RESULTS: a - Midfielder - 8.00 laps (3200 meters) b - Midfielder - 8.25 laps (3300 meters) c - Midfielder - 7.00 laps (had been sick)(2800 meters) d - Defender - 6.75 laps (2700 meters) e - Striker - 8.00 laps (3200 meters) f - Striker - did 6 laps then quit with stomach cramps g - Defender - 7.75 laps (3100 meters) h - Defender - 8.25 laps (3300 meters) i - midfielder - 8.50 laps (3400 meters) j - Striker - 8.25 laps (3300 meters) k - Stopper - 7.75 laps (3100 meters) l - Mid/Striker - 8.25 laps (3300 meters) m - Sweeper - 8.25 laps (3300 meters) n - Goalkeeper - 8.00 laps (3200 meters) o - Midfielder - 7.75 laps (3100 meters) p - Defender - 8.00 laps (3200 meters) 2 players were injured (Hamstring and sprained ankle) 1 player did not attend due to work commitments. UNDER 19 BOYS SELECT - (200 meter Shuttle runs 2x with 30 seconds rest). Mid-season SETUP: On grass, (5) cones are placed at 10 yard intervals. X X X X X (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) At the signal, players sprint from a-b and back to a, a-c and back to a, a-d and back to a, a-e and back to a (1 set). Although we have varied the number of sets, going as high as (10) sets, the following figures are for 2 sets with a 30 second rest period between sets: POSITION FIRST SET SECOND SET a - Defender - 36.3 38.74 b - Striker - 34.5 40.43 c - Defender - 35.58 40.06 d - Midfielder - 35.27 38.13 e - Goalkeeper - 36.18 39.44 f - Midfielder - 34.47 38.5 g - Defender - 35.01 40.29 h - Midfielder - 35.04 37.13 i - Sweeper - 34.64 36.74 j - Stopper - 34.65 40.05 k - Goalkeeper - 38.18 40.89 l - Striker - 35.65 38.07 m - Defender - 35.67 38.77 n - Midfielder - 34.52 39.38 0 - Striker - 36.11 37.86 p - Defender - 35.23 38.11 q - Defender - 36.41 39.38 two players absent. Again, I don't know if this will help at all but you might be able to do some comparatives. Cheers Mourad
Download the training instructions in RTF format.
"Fartlek" is Swedish for "speed play", and refers to a system of aerobic endurance and power exercising that varies the speed and intensity to produce and "interval training" effect. The document included here is simply one possible implementation of fartlek training; there are as many others as there are trainers interested in the method. This document, in RTF format, can be downloaded and converted by word-processing software to your favour format. It was produced by Christopher Williams, who has given permission for it to be included in the manual:
From: Ciscooh@aol.com Date: Tue, 1 Dec 1998 20:37:20 EST To: firstname.lastname@example.org Mime-Version: 1.0 Subject: Re: Fartlek training Thanks for your interest. Please feel free to use the information in whatever manner you may find beneficial. Also this document shall serve as a disclaimer/grantor that you may use that information in your manual as well. If you are interested, I have a program outline that you might want to look through. Give me a call at 614-478-7888 if you are interested, and I'll see about getting a copy to you. It is formatted for coaches of U10 and above, and may provide some guidance tocoaches that are struggling to find their way. Let me know if you are interested, and I would also be interested to hear what your colleagues think of it as well. Christopher Williams, Columbus, OhioUpdated 18 March 1999