Barbour, M. & Collins, M. (2005). Online Writing as an Indicator of Student Performance International Journal of Instructional Technologu & Distance Learning, 2(8).Retrieved November 12, 2005 from

Bradshaw, J., & Hinton, L. (2004). Benefits of An Online Discussion List in A Traditional Distance Education Course  Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 5(3).Retrieved November 12, 2005 from

Callaway Russo, T., & Campbell, S. (2004). Perceptions of mediated presence in an asynchronous online course: interplay of communication behaviours and medium Distance Education, 25(2) Retrieved November 12, 2005 from

Cunningham-Atkins, H., Powell, N., Hobbs, D., & Sharpe, S. (2004). The role of cognitive style in educational computer conferencing. British Journal of Educational Technology, 35(1), 69-80. Retrieved October 21, 2005 from 

DeLaat, M., & Lally, V. (2004). It's not so easy: researching the complexity of emergent participant roles and awareness in asynchronous networked learning discussions. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning
20 (3) Pp165-171. Retrieved October 21, 2005 from

Dennen, V. (2005). From message posting to learning dialogues: Factors affecting learner participation in asynchronous discussion. Distance Education, 26(1), 127-148. Retrieved October 2, 2005 from

Dewiyanti, S., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Jochems, W.(2005). Applying reflection and moderation in an asynchronous computer-supported collaborative learning environment in campus-based higher education. British Journal of Educational Technology
36 (4), 5-18. Retrieved October 21, 2005 from

Fitze, M. (2006). Discourse and participation in ESL face-to-face  and written electronic conferences.  Language Learning and Technology. 10 (1), 42-46. Retrieved March 20, 2006 from

Freeman, M., & Bamford, A. (2004). Student choice of anonymity for learner identity in online learning discussion forums. International Journal on E-Learning, 3(3), 45-53. Retrieved November 16, 2005 from

Goodell, J, & Yusko, B. (2005). Overcoming barriers to student participation in online discussions. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 5(1), 77-92. Retrieved October 20, 2005 from

Hammond, M., & Wiriyapinit, M. (2005). Learning through online discussion: A case of triangulation in research. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 21(3), 283-302. Retrieved October 20, 2005 from

Hewitt, J. (2003). How habitual online practices affect the development of asynchronous discussion threads. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 28(1), 31-47. Retrieved October 28, 2005 from

Khan, S. (2005). Listservs in the college science classroom: Evaluating participation and “richness” in computer-mediated discourse. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 13(2), 325-351. Retrieved November 16, 2005 from

LaPointe, D., & Gunawardena, C. (2004). Developing, testing and refining of a model to understand the relationship between peer interaction and learning outcomes in computer-mediated conferencing  Distance Education, 25(1) Retrieved December 3, 2005 from

Lavooy, M., & Newlin, M. (2003). Computer Mediated Communication: Online Instruction and Interactivity. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. 14 (2), pp. 157-165. Retrieved October 20, 2005 from

Mariano, L.D., & de la Rosa, C.,(2004). Beyond an Institutionalized Learning Environment: Fostering Interactions and Learning Using Synchronous and Asynchronous Messaging Systems Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 5 (3). Retrieved November 12, 2005 from

Matishak, A.M. (1999). Computer mediated communication and spiritual experience: Online discussion of the numinous. Unpublished masters thesis. University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada. Retrieved March 23, 2006 from

Mazzolini, M., & Maddison, S. (2003). Sage, guide, or ghost? The effect of instructor intervention on student participation in online discussion forums. Computers & Education. 40 (3) p. 237-253. Retrieved July 7, 2005 from

Molinari, D. (2004).The Role of Social Comments in Problem-Solving Groups in an Online Class. American Journal of Distance Education, 200, Vol. 18, (2),  89-101 . Retrieved October 20, 2005 from

Murphy, E. & Coleman, E.(2004). Graduate students' experiences of challenges related to participation in online asynchronous discussions. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology, 30(2),29-46. Retrieved April 13, 2005, from 

Pena-Shaff, J., Altman, W., & Stephenson, H. (2005). Asynchronous Online Discussions as a Tool for Learning: Students' Attitudes, Expectations, and Perceptions. Journal of Interactive Learning Research. 16 (4), pp. 409-430. Retrieved October 20, 2005 from

Rojo, A. (1995). Participation in scholarly electronic forums. Chapter 2 of a doctoral dissertation, University of Toronto, Toronto. Retrieved March 25, 2002 from 

Rojo, A., & Ragsdale, R. G. (1997). A process perspective on participation in scholarly electronic forums. Science Communication, 18(4), 320-341. 

Ross, J. A. (1996). The influence of computer communication skills on participation in a computer conferencing course. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 15(1), 37-52. Retrieved February 12, 2006 from

Ruberg, L. F., More, D. M., & Taylor, C. D. (1996). Student participation, interaction, and regulation in a computer-mediated communication environment: A qualitative study. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 14(3), 243-268. Retrieved February 12, 2006 from

Russo, T. C., et. al.(2004). Perceptions of Mediated Presence in an Asynchronous Online Course: Interplay of communication behaviors and medium. Distance Education, 25(2), 215-32. Retrieved October 21, 2005 from 

Salmon, G. (2002). Mirror, mirror, on my screen. Exploring online reflections. British Journal of Educational Technology
33 (4), 379-391. Retrieved October 21, 2005 from

Sing, C. C., & Khine, M. S. (2006). An Analysis of Interaction and Participation Patterns in Online Community. Educational Technology & Society, 9 (1), 250-261. Retrieved March 22, 2006 from

Tu, C., & Corry, M. (2004). Online Discussion Durations Impact Online Social Presence. In Proceedings of Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2004 (pp. 3073-3077). Retrieved October 20, 2005 from

Yildiz, S., & Bichelmeyer, B. A. (2003). Exploring electronic forum participation and interaction by EFL speakers in two web-based graduate-level courses. Distance Education, 24(2), 175-193. Retrieved December 3, 2005 from