Lecture Notes Week Two: Anthropology 3291
© 2006 Michael Deal
Peopling the Maritimes: The Setting
The earliest human inhabitants of the Maritime Province are known to the modern Mi'kmaq simply as the "Ancient Ones" (Saqiwe'k Lnu"k), but to archaeologists they are the Paleoindians. The Paleoindian period for the Northeast in general dates between approximately 10,800 and 10,050 years BP, and can divided into Early, Middle and Late subperiods based on the seriation of diagnostic projectile point styles (Newby et al. 2005:148-150). Bradley (2001) further identifies several regional phases, at least four of which are relevant to the Maritime provinces (see Vignette 3.1). Paleoindian artifacts have been found throughout Maine and Maritimes, including the Magdalen Islands. However, only a handful of sites have been excavated, including the Debert and Belmont sites in Nova Scotia (Davis 1991; MacDonald 1968), the Jones site on Prince Edward Island (Keenlyside 1985; MacCarthy 2003), and the Vail and Michaud sites in Maine (Gramly 1982; Spiess and Wilson 1987). In the Maritimes, Bonnischen and others (1991) report only 16 sites and isolated surface finds for the entire period: four in New Brunswick, six in Nova Scotia and six in Prince Edward Island. This has been filled out somewhat by more recent finds and studies of private collections. Many more sites are known from Maine and New England, which gives us a general model for interpreting the Paleoindian materials from the Maritimes. In fact, it is impossible to discuss the prehistory of the Maritimes without including adjacent areas of Quebec and Maine, known collectively as the Maritime Peninsula. Wright (1995:29) also uses the term "Debert/Vail complex" to refer to a shared cultural tradition centred in the Maritimes and northern New England.
Prior to the arrival of humans, northeastern North America was almost completely covered by ice. At the time of glacial maximum, ca. 18,000 B.P., the only unglaciated portions of the Maritime Peninsula were offshore islands and peninsulas that are now part of the broad Continental Shelf, including Georges Bank and Sable Island (Pielou 1991:138-146). The Cape Breton Highlands, the Magdalan Islands and northeastern Prince Edward Island were probably part of a larger land mass that bordered the Goldthwait Sea, the ancestral Gulf of St. Lawrence. Such areas served as "refugia" for many hardy species of flora and fauna. For years, fishermen trawling the Georges Bank have pulled up specimens of prehistoric mammoth and mastodon teeth (Edwards and Emery 1997) . According to Pielou (1991:141), the vegetation of glacial Georges Bank probably consisted of a mixture of tundra, which attracted mammoths, and coniferous parkland and black spruce, which attracted mastodon. Refugia to the north would have been more thinly vegetated, with low shrubs and herbs covering glacial Sable Island. Large active animals, including wolves and caribou, could have moved freely among the refugia. The flora and fauna from these unglaciated areas would have migrated to the mainland as the glacial ice retreated and contributed to the modern flora and fauna of the region.
Around 13,000 B.P., the retreat of ice from the coast of Maine led to a "marine transgression" (Struiver and Borns 1975) and the formation of an extensive coastal bay. Subsequent crustal rebound reversed the transgression and by 12,000 B.P. the modern coast of Maine was formed. At about the same time, in the northern part of the Maritime Peninsula, salt water inundated the western end of the Goldthwait Sea to form the vast inland Champlain Sea. It covered over 20,000 square kilometer and spread westward nearly to Lake Ontario. This was a cold water sea inhabited by whales (bowheads, humpbacks, finbacks, belugas and harbour porpoises) and seals (ringed, harp, and bearded), and fish species such as tomcod and three-spined stickleback (Pielou 1991:217). It would last for 2,000 years, until crustal upwarping drained the salt water and formed the freshwater channel we know as the St. Lawrence River.
During the early Holocene, sea levels were up to 60 m. lower in some areas, and a broad plain linked Prince Edward Island with the mainland (Scott et al. 1987). Keenlyside (1983; 1991) refers to this landbridge as "Northumbria." To the northeast of Prince Edward Island, the Magdalen Plateau extended out to the Magdalen Islands and northeast New Brunswick to form the southern bank of the St. Lawrence.
The Early Paleoindian occupation of the Maritimes, and south to New England, roughly coincides with a cooling period known as the Younger Dryas stadial, which dates from 11,000 to 10,000 radiocarbon years BP (or 12,900 to 11, 600 cal yrs BP). The radiocarbon dates from the Debert site range from about 11,106 to 10,043 radiocarbon years BP (or 13,148 to11,736 cal yr BP; Bradley 2001). It is generally difficult to correlate paleoecological work with perceived trends in prehistory, yet Newby and others (2005) argue convincingly that climatic changes involved in the Younger Dryas resulted in changes in floral and faunal populations that directly impacted on human resource procurement strategies. They use comprehensive fossil pollen records for species that give the best indication of overall vegetation change to reconstruct vegetation patterns in the region at 1000 year intervals. Climatic conditions during the Younger Dryas coincided with large areas of tundra-like vegetation north of spruce woodlands. The spruce population in the Maritimes shifted southward, while sedges (open tundra vegetation) and remnant glaciers expanded (Newby et al. 2005:145-147). At the end of the period the tundra-like vegetation was replaced by widespread closed forests, including temperate conifer and deciduous populations. Their reconstruction also indicates that regional vegetation patterns during the Younger Dryas would have been suitable for long-distance migrating caribou herds, similar to the modern George River Herd of northern Quebec and Labrador. The mixed deciduous forests following the Younger Dryas were probably more suitable to solitary cervids like moose and deer (Newby et al. 2005:151).
There has been considerable speculation as to the timing and nature of Paleoindian colonization of the Maritime Peninsula. The movement of these early hunter/gatherers is generally linked to changing environmental conditions, the movement of caribou herds, and the availability of suitable lithics for stone tools. Gramly (1993:94) suggests that the Lamb site may have belonged to a pioneering group that established a migration route north and east of the Ohio River, and eventually on to northern Maine and the Maritimes. The existence of the Champlain Sea during the Younger Dryas period may have also greatly influenced human migration. Dincauze (2001:122) suggests that people travelling east along early Lake Ontario and the shores of the Champlain Sea may have been lured there by the biotic richness of adjacent woodlands, wetlands, and tundra. Besides caribou and beaver, summer-nesting waterfowl could have provided meat, eggs, and feathers, as well as access to bird hunting fur-bearers such as foxes, wolves, martins, weasels, fetids, and raptors (Dincause 2001:123). Bird hunting would have required some sort of netting technology. Loring (1980:21, 35) notes that several concentrations of Paleoindian sites are associated with the Champlain Sea shore, and suggests that this may represent frequent visits by small hunting parties, and possibly attracted to the rich marine biota of the Champlain Sea (i.e., seals, whales and possibly walrus).
Curran (1999:21) suggests that fluted point using peoples were probably drawn north in search of resources, rather than due to population pressures at home. Dena Dincauze has argued that some of the largest Paleoindian sites in the Northeast, including Debert, may have actually been marshalling areas, occupied by groups who had just entered a new territory and such sites became "focal places used for the gathering, arranging, and allocating of resources and information" (1996:10). She notes that previous interpretations included the use of these sites as camps and lookouts for intercepting migrating caribou herds (episodic reuse), seasonal hunting aggregation camps, macroband camps, or seasonal social aggregation camps (e.g., reunions for sharing information, mate selection, and exploitation of seasonal resources: Dincauze 1996:6-7). For example, MacDonald (1982:x) suggested that variations in fluted projectilve point styles indicated that the first inhabitants of the region formed several distinct macrobands, rather than an homogenous population. Dincauze (1996:8) lists several criteria that would apply to pioneer marshalling sites, including distance to other large sites, archaeological visibility (rarity), use of earliest fluted point style, evidence of only one or two lithic sources, distinct artifact clusters (features), richness of the artifact assemblage in each cluster, and stylistic conformity. Debert is certainly a strong candidate for a marshalling area under these criteria. In particular, if it were an aggregation site for smaller local bands, you would expect to see much more variability in lithic resources. However, the mathematical odds of discovering the first pioneer encampment in the region must be phenomenal. The paucity of large sites in the Maritimes may merely be a result of the submergence of other large sites and the small number of researchers working in the area. Marshalling may also have involved shorter expansions, in which case, Debert may be one of a number of such sites in the region.
The Early Paleoindians
The earliest human inhabitants of the Maritime Peninsula were part of a wider North American Paleoindian cultural manifestation, identified in the west with the Clovis cultural tradition. The great separation in time and unique environments makes it difficult to compare these people with modern native cultures. As Wright (1995:24) points out, a social system that could maintain a consistent technological tradition while colonizing such a vast area is difficult to imagine. People of the Northeastern Paleoindian tradition are generally depicted as mobile hunter-gatherers. They probably used at least two residential "base camps" (i.e., warm and cold season camps), logistical camps for a variety of subsistence tasks, and quarrying sites (Gramly and Funk 1990). Gramly (1982) suggests that some archaeological sites, like Bull Brook, Massachusetts, and Whipple, New Hampshire, may have been the warm and cold season camps for the same macroband. Paleoindian quarrying sites are rare, but they have been identified in areas around Munsungan Lake, Maine (Bonnichsen 1981), while a single-fluted projectile point was found at the quarry site on Ingonish Island, Cape Breton (Nash 1978).
Paleoindians of the region are generally portrayed as caribou hunters, although this is supported more by vegetation reconstructions than by actual faunal material. Caribou bones are only known from the Bull Brook site, Massachusetts, the Whipple site, New Hampshire, the Udora site, Ontario, and possibly Michaud, Maine (Spiess et al. 1985; Spiess and Wilson 1987; Storck and Spiess 1994). Supporting evidence from Debert comes from blood residues on scraping tools that have been tentatively identified as caribou (Keenlyside 1991:164), although blood residue analysis is still a controversial technique. Caribou may have been only available as a seasonal resource (Spiess et al. 1985). Bonnichsen and others (1991) suggest that a wide variety of habitats was available in Paleoindian times, and that Paleoindian subsistence patterns may have been quite diverse. So far, the only other fauna associated with these early sites are beaver, arctic fox, hare and unidentified species of mammal, fish, and bird. However, it is assumed that the Paleoindians also hunted harbour and grey seals, and possibly walrus (e.g., Keenlyside 1985a). Anadromous fish species, such as salmon and gaspereau, were also plentiful. Jackson (1987) suggests that the earliest Paleoindians of southern Ontario may have also hunted mastodonts. Mastodons and mammoths may have overlaped with Paleoindians on the Maritime Peninsula, but an association has yet to be demonstrated (Odale et al. 1987).
Recent ice-patch archaeology in the Yukon (Farnell et al. 2004; Hare et al. 2004) has prompted speculation that the remnant ice sheets on the Maritime Peninsula (Borns et al. 2004; Stea et al. 1998) during the Younger Dryas may have attracted both caribou and their human predators. For example, Pelletier and Robinson (2005) suggest that Early Paleoindians from Bull Brook may have travelled the 400 km to Munsungan Lake to obtain chert from local quarries, but also to take advantage of caribou at nearby ice-patches in summer. Debert is also conveniently situated between a remnant ice sheet and the presumed lithic source at Partridge Island (now underwater). As Hare and others point out (2004:261), ice may have also facilitated the storage of meat for early hunters.
There is very little evidence of plant use from Northeast Paleoindian sites, although plants must have been important to their survival, just as they are to historically known Arctic and Subarctic populations (e.g., Hawkes 1916:34-37; Porsild 1937). For the modern Inuit, it is through plants that the earth is imbued with life (Dritsas 1986:111). Ethnographic accounts indicated that plants served a variety of needs for modern populations, including food, medicine, fuel, and materials for sleeping mats (e.g., Dritsas 1986:62-70; Holtved 1967:143-144; Porsild 1937). Berry crops in particular are a critical resource across the Arctic and Subarctic (e.g., Hawkes 1916:34-36; Thornton 1999). Dent an Kaufman (1985:72, Table 5.2) report a varied floral assemblage from the Shawnee-Minisink site, Pennsylvania, including seeds from acalypha (Acalypha virginica), amaranth (Amarantus sp.), buckbean (Menyanthes trifoliata L.), hackberry (Celtis sp.), blackberry (Rubus sp.), chenopod (Chenopodium sp.), hawthorn plum (Crataegus sp.), smartweed (Ploygonum sp.), winter cress (Barbarea orthoceras), and grape (Vitis sp.). Not surprisingly, they consider fruits to be the more important plants from the assemblage, since they are high in carbohydrate values (Dent and Kaufman 1985:73). Spiess and others (1995) collected a floral assemblage from the Hedden site, Maine, consisting primarily of charred wood, bark, pitch, seeds and conifer needles. Unfortunately, the assemblage cannot be conclusively tied to the Paleoindian cultural component, except for one grape pip. Wood charcoal samples were primarily spruce (Picea spp.) and pine (Pinus spp.), while other specimens included one fir needle (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.), and seeds from brambles (Rubus spp.), bunchberry (Cornus canadensis), bristly sarsaparilla (Aralia hispida Vent.) and grape (Vitis sp.; Ash Siddal 1999:197). The only plant remains recovered from the Debert site were wood charcoal fragments collected for radiocarbon dating. Three of the fifteen samples submitted for species identification at the Forest Products Laboratory (USDA) were tentatively identified as spruce (Picea sp.), while the remainder were reported as softwoods (Stuckenrath 1966:76).
The diagnostic artifact of the Paleoindians is the fluted projectile point, although they undoubtedly had a variety of other tool forms made form stone, bone and wood. While preservation conditions in the Northeast are not kind to organic artifacts, bone and ivory artifacts (even some on mammoth bone) have been found at Paleoindian sites in western North America and Florida. Bradley (1996) reports that six basic forms have been identified, including double-bevelled bone tools, bone and ivory projectile points, a cylindrical ivory knapping billet/burnisher, a perforated bone rod (shaft straightener), an awl and a bone bead. The double-bevelled bone tools, which are the most common form, have been variously interpreted as foreshafts for spears, sled runner segments, or sections of ceremonial staffs (Bradley 1996; Dunbar et al. 1989; Gramly 1993:8; Lahren and Bonnichsen 1974). The foreshaft interpretation is now well-entrenched in the literature (e.g., Wright 1995).
The latter part of the Paleoindian period (c. 10,000 to 8,000 B.P.) is characterized by the use of unfluted or smaller fluted projectile points. The Paleoindians appear to have became more restricted in their movements at this time, possibly due to the degeneration of the spruce forest environment through the spread of pine. Remnant stands of spruce along water margins may have drawn some macrobands to more coastal areas. Late Paleoindian hunters following the St. Lawrence drainage to the Gulf would have encountered winter herds of harp seal (Loring 1980:35). Keenlyside (1985) suggests that the Paleoindians living along the eastern coast of the Maritime Peninsula and the lower St. Lawrence River may have had a marine adaptation focused on peak seasonal occurrences of seal and walrus. He refers to this as a "Paleomarine Adaptation" (c. 9,500 to 9,000 B.P.). This may account for the scaled down version of the fluted projectile point that has been recovered at several locations in the area. The 20 small fluted eared points associated with the Jones site, Prince Edward Island, were made from Ingonish Island chert (see Bonnichsen et al. 1991:14-15). The Jones site assemblage also included a barbed fluted point. Keenlyside (1985) also links the late Paleoindian marine adaptation to the Maritime Archaic cultural pattern that developed later in the same area. Unfluted Clovis-like and Plano-like projectile points have been recovered from various locations in the Gaspé, Southwestern New Brunswick, Central Nova Scotia, Cape Breton Island and Alamoosook Lake, Maine. These artifacts may reflect a more riverine and lacustrine adaptation for the inhabitants of the western portion of the Maritime Peninsula.
1984 Research on Clay and Other Minerals in New Brunswick Appropriate to the Fabrications of Pottery. National Museums of Canada, Museums Assistance Programmes, Ottawa.
Asch Sidell, N.
1999 Prehistoric Plant Use in Maine: Paleoindian to Contact Period. In Current Northeast Paleoethnobotany, edited by J. P. Hart, pp. 191-223. New York State Museum Bulletin 494. The University of the State of New York, Albany.
1997 Lithic Materials and the JCAP Petrographic. In JCAP Preliminary Technical Report, edited by S. E. Blair, 2:1-53. Archaeological Services, Department of Municipalities, Culture and Housing, New Brunswick, Fredericton.
Black, D. W., and L. A. Wilson
1999 The Washadeomoak Lake Chert Source, Queens County, New Brunswick, Canada. Archaeology of Eastern North America 27:81-108.
Bonnichsen, R. (editor)
1981 Archaeological Research at Munsungun Lake: 1981 Preliminary Technical Report of Activities. Munsungun Lake Paper No.7. Institute for Quaternary Studies and the Center for the Study of Early Man, University of Maine, Orono.
Bonnichsen, R., D. Keenlyside, and K. Turnmire
1991 Paleoindian Patterns in Maine and the Maritimes: An Overview. In Prehistory of the Maritime Provinces: Past and Present Research, edited by M. Deal and S. Blair, pp. 1-28. Council of Maritime Premiers, Fredericton.
Bonnichsen, R. and R. F. Will
1999 Radiocarbon Chronology of Northeastern Paleoamerican Sites: Discriminating Natural and Human Burn Features. In Ice-Age Peoples of North America: Environments, Origins and Adaptations, edited by R. Bonnichsen and K. L. Turnmire, pp. 395-415. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis, Oregon.
Borns, H. W. Jr.
1966 The Geography of Paleo-Indian Occupation in Nova Scotia. Quaternaria 8:49-57.
1989 A Cost-benefit Study of Functionally Similar Tools. In Time, Energy and Stone Tools, edited by R. Torrence, pp. 67-77. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Bradley, B. A.
1995 Clovis Ivory and Bone Tools. In Le Travail et L'Usage de L'Ivoire au Paleolithique Suprieur, edited by J. Hahn, M. Menu, Y. Taborin, Ph. Walter, and F. Widemann. Actes de la Table Ronde, Centro Universitario Europeo per i Beni Culturali, Ravello, Italy.
Bradley, J. W. (editor)
2001 NEMPID (New England and the Canadian Maritimes Paleoindian Database). Retrieved from the World Wide Web on July 5, 2006 at http://www.geo.brown.edu/georesearch/esh/QE/QEHome.html.
Brewster, G., S. A. Davis, M. Frappier, R. J. Mott, and R. R. Stea
1996 Preliminary Report on the Debert/Belmont Palaeo-Indian Project. In Archaeology in Nova Scotia 1991, Curatorial Report Number 81, edited by S. Powell, pp. 81-88. Nova Scotia Museum, Halifax.
1997 Lithic Procurement and the Ceramic Period Occupation of the Interior of the Maritime Peninsula. Ph.D. dissertation in preparation, Department of Anthropology, SUNY, Albany.
Byers, D. S.
1966 The Debert Archaeology Project: The Position of Debert with Respect to the Paleo-Indian Tradition. Quaternaria 8:33-47.
1999 Late Paleoindian occupation in a coastal environment: a perspective from La Martre, Gaspé Peninsula, Quebec. Northeast Anthropology (57):69-79.
Chalifoux, É. and A. Burke
1995. L'Occupation Préhistorique du Témiscouata (est du Québec), un Lieu de Portage entre Deux Grandes Voies de Circulation. In Archéologies Québécoises. Paléo-Québec no 23, edited by A.-M. Balac, C. Chapdelaine, N. Clermont and F. Duguay, pp. 237-270. Recherches Amérindiennes au Québec, Montreal.
Christianson, D. J.
1991 Report on the Chamber's Fluted Point Preform. In Archaeology in Nova Scotia 1987 and 1988, edited by S. A. Davis, C. Lindsay, R. Ogilvie, and B. Preston, pp. 7-12. Nova Scotia Museum Curatorial Report 69, Halifax.
Clark, G. F.
1968 Someone Before Us: Our Maritime Indians. Unipress, Fredericton.
Cotter, J. L. (compiler)
1962 Notes and News - Northeast. American Antiquity 27(3):454-456.
1967 Notes on Experiments in Flintknapping: 3. The Flint Knappers Raw Materials. Tebiwa 10:8-25.
1984 Pattern and Variation on Prehistoric Lithic Resource Exploitation in Passamaquoddy Bay, Charlotte County, New Brunswick. M.Sc. thesis, University of Maine at Orono, Orono.
Curran, M. L.
1996 Paleoindians in the Northeast: The Problem of Dating Fluted Point Sites. Review of Archaeology 17(1):2-5.
2000 Exploration, Colonization and Settling in: The Bull Brook Phase, Antecedents and Descendants. In The Archaeological Northeast, edited by M. A. Levine, K. E. Sassaman, and M. S. Nassaney, pp. 3-24. Bergin & Garvey, Westport, CT.
Davis, R. B., and G. L. Jacobson, Jr.
1985 Late Glacial and Early Holocene Landscapes in Northern New England and Adjacent Areas of Canada. Quaternary Research 23:341-368.
Davis, S. A.
1991 Two Concentrations of Palaeo-Indian Occupation in the Far Northeast. Revista de Arqueología Americana, Revue d' Archéologie Américaine 3:31-56.
Davis, S. A. and D. Christianson
1988 Three Palaeo-Indian Specimens from Nova Scotia. Canadian Journal of Archaeology 12:190-196.
1984 The Archaeological Significance of the Chiputneticook-St. Croix Drainage System. Ms. on file, Archaeological Services, Fredericton.
1998 Aboriginal Land and Resource Use in New Brunswick during the Late Prehistoric and Early Contact Periods. Prepared for the Centre for Research and Development Studies, Office of the Vice President, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton.
Deal, M., and P. Silk.
1988. Absorption Residues and Vessel Function: a Case Study from the Maine-Maritimes Region. In A Pot for All Reasons: Ceramic Ecology Revisited, edited by C. C. Kolb and L. M. Lackey, pp. 105-125. Laboratory of Anthropology, Temple University, Philadelphia.
Dent, R. J., and B. E. Kauffman
1985 Aboriginal Subsistence and Site Ecology as Interpreted from Microfloral and Faunal Remains. In Shawnee Minisink: A Stratified Paleoindian-Archaic Site in the Upper Delaware Valley of Pennsylvania, edited by C. W. McNett, Jr., pp. 55-79. Academic Press, New York.
Dincauze, D. F.
1996 Large Paleoindian sites in the Northeast: pioneers' marshalling camps? Bulletin of the Massachusetts Archaeological Society 57(1):3-17.
Dincauze, D. F. and V. Jacobson
2001 The Birds of Summer: Lakeside Routes into Late Pleistocene New England. Canadian Journal of Archaeology 25:121-126.
Dostal, J., and C. Dupuy
1984 Geochemistry of the North Mountain Basalts (Nova Scotia, Canada). Chemical Geology 45:245-261.
Doyle, R. G.
1995 Analysis of Lithic Artifacts: The Identification, Petrologic Description, and Statistical Analysis of Lithic Artifacts Recovered from the Turner Farm Site. In Diversity and Complexity in Prehistoric Maritime Societies: a Gulf of Maine Perspective, by B. J. Bourque, Appendix 6, pp. 297-316. Plenum, New York.
Doyle, R. G., Jr., N. D. Hamilton, J. B. Petersen, and D. Sanger
1985 Late Paleo-Indian Remains from Maine and Their Correlations in Northeastern Prehistory. Archaeology of Eastern North America 13:1-33.
2000 The La Martre and Mitis Late Paleoindian Sites: A Reflection on the Peopling of Southeastern Quebec. Archaeology of Eastern North America 28:81-112.
Dunbar, J. S., and D. D. Webb
1996 Bone and Ivory Tools from Submerged Paleoindian Sites in Florida. In The Paleoindian and Early Archaic Southeast, edited by D. G. Anderson and K. E. Sassaman, pp. 331-353. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa.
Dunbar, J. S., D. D. Webb, and D. Cring
1989 Culturally and Naturally Modified Bones from a Paleoindian Site in Aucilla River, North Florida. In International Conference on Bone Modification, 1984, Carson City Nevada, pp. 473-497. Center for the Study of the First Americans, Orono, Maine.
2004 Understanding "Clovis" Fluted Point Variability in the Northeast: A Perspective from the Debert Site, Nova Scotia. Canadian Journal of Archaeology 28(2):205-253.
Ellis, C., A. C. Goodyear, D. F. Morse and K. B. Tankersley
1998 Archaeology of the Pleistocene-Holocene Transition in Eastern North America. Quaternary International 49/50:151-166.
Erskine, J. S.
1964 Debert Sote, Colchester County. In Unpublished Papers on the Archaeology of the Maritime Provinces by John S. Erskine, compiled by M. Deal (1986), p. 58. Ms on file, Nova Scotia Museum, Halifax.
1998 Memoirs on the Prehistory of Nova Scotia, 1957-1967. Edited by M. Deal. Special Report, Nova Scotia Museum, Halifax.
Edwards, R. L., and K. O. Emery
1977 Man on the Continental Shelf. In Amerinds and Their Paleoenvironments in Northeast North America. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 288:245-256.
Farnell, R., G. P. Hare, E. Blake, v. Bowyer, C. Schweger, S. Greer, and R. Gotthardt
2004 Multidisciplinary Investigations of Alpine Ice Patches in Southwest Yukon, Canada: Paleoenvironmental and Paleobiological Investigations. Arctic 57(3):247-259.
Fiedel, S. J.
1999 Older Than We Thought: Implications of Corrected Dates for Paleoindians. American Antiquity 64(1):95-115.
Gramly, R. M.
1982 The Vail Site: a Palaeo-Indian Encampment in Maine. Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences, Vol. 30, Buffalo.
1993 The Richey Clovis Cache: Earliest Americans Along the Columbia River. Persimmon Press, Buffalo.
1999 The Lamb Site: A Pioneering Clovis Encampment. Persimmon Press, Buffalo.
Gramly, R. M., and R. E. Funk
1990 What is Known and Not Known About the Human Occupation of the Northeastern United States Until 10,000 BP. Archaeology of Eastern North America 18:5-31.
Hare, P. G., S. A. Greer, R. Gotthardt, R. Farnell, V. Bowyer, C. Schweger, and D. Strand
2004 Ethnographic and Archaeological Investigations of Alpine Ice Patches in Southwest Yukon, Canada. Arctic 57(30:260-272.
Hoyle, B. G., D. C. Fisher, H. W. Borns, Jr., L. L. Churchill-Dickson, C. C. Dorion, and T. K. Weddle
2004 Late Pleistocene Mammoth Remains from Coastal Maine, U. S. A. Quaternary Research 61:277-288.
Jackson, L. J.
1987 Ontario Paleoindians and Proboscidians: A Review. Current Research in the Pleistocene 4:109-112.
1997 The Washadamoak Chert Source. In JCAP Preliminary Technical Report, edited by S. E. Blair, 2:4-59. Archaeological Services, New Brunswick Department of Municipalities, Culture and Housing, Fredericton.
Keenlyside, D. L.
1983 In Search of the Island's First People. The Island Magazine 13(Spring/Summer):3-7.
1985a Late-Palaeo-Indian Evidence from the Southern Gulf of St. Lawrence. Archaeology of Eastern North America 13:79-92.
1885b La Période Paleoindienne sur L'lle du Prince Edouard. Recherches Amérindiennes au Quebec 15:119-126.
1990 An Archaeological Survey of the Upper Reaches of the Tracadie Estuary, New Brunswick. New Brunswick Archaeology 26. New Brunswick, Municipalities, Culture, and Housing, Fredericton.
1991 Paleoindian Occupations of the Maritimes Region of Canada. In Clovis: Origins and Adaptations, edited by R. Bonnichsen and K. Turnmire, pp. 163-173. Center for the Study of the First Americans, Orono, Maine.
Kellogg, D. C.
2003 The Neal Garrison Paleoindian Site, York County, Maine. Archaeology of Eastern North America 28:73-132.
Laub, R. S.
2000 A Second Date Mastadon Bone Artifact from Pleistocene Deposits at the Hiscock Site (Western New York State). Archaeology of Eastern North America 28:141-154.
Laub, R. S., M. J. O'Brien, and V. Hayes
1996 A Date Mastodon Bone Artifact from the Late Pleistocene of New York. Archaeology of Eastern North America 24:1-17.
Lavine, M. A.
1996 Accommodating Age: Radiocarbon Results and Fluted Point Sites in Northeastern North America. Archaeology of Eastern North America 16:33-64.
Laybolt, A. D.
1999 Prehistoric Settlement and Subsistence Patterns at Gaspereau Lake, Kings County, Nova Scotia. MA thesis, Archaeology Unit, Memorial University, St. John's.
1996 Mi'kmaq Culture during the Late Woodland and Early Historic Period. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Toronto.
2005 First Nations Archaeology at the Enclosure, Miramichi, NB. Unpublished report submitted to Archaeological Services, Heritage Branch Culture and Sport Secretariat, New Brunswick Department of Education, Fredericton.
Levesque, A. J., F. E. Mayle, I. R. Walker, and L. C. Cwynar
1993 A Previously Unrecognized Late-Glacial Cold Event in Eastern North America. Nature 361:623-626.
Livingstone, D. R.
1968 Some Interstadial and Postglacial Pollen Diagrams from Eastern Canada. Ecological Monographs 38:87-125.
1980 Paleo-Indian Hunter and the Champlain Sea: A Presumed Association. Man in the Northeast 19:15-41.
2003 Mobility, Migration and Projectile Point Diversity in the Late Paleoindian Period of the Far Northeast. Unpublished MA thesis, Archaeology Unit, Department of Anthropology, Memorial University, St. John's.
MacDonald, G. F.
1965 Letter to J. S. Erskine, Oct. 29, 1965, concerning the excavation of a site on Gaspereau Lake, Nova Scotia. National Museum of Canada, Human History Branch.
1966 The Technology and Settlement Pattern of a Paleo-Indian Site at Debert, Nova Scotia. Quaternaria 8:59-80.
1968 Debert: a Palaeo-Indian Site in Central Nova Scotia. Anthropology Papers, No. 16, National Museum of Canada, Ottawa.
1971 A Review of Research on Paleo-Indian in Eastern North America, 1960-1970. Arctic Anthropology 8(2):32-41.
1982 Foreword. In The Vail Site: A Palaeo-indian Encampment in Maine, by R. M Gramly, pp. x-xi. Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences 30.
1983 Eastern North America. In Early Man in the New World, edited by R. Shutler, Jr., pp. 97-108. Sage Publications, London.
Matthew, G. F.
1900 A Quarry and Workshop Site of the Stone Age in New Brunswick. The Royal Society of Canada, Transactions Section II, 6:61-69.
McEachen, P., P. Allen, P. Julig, and D. G. F. Long
1999 The Tozer Site Revisited: Implications for the Early Woodland Period in New Brunswick. Canadian Journal of Archaeology 22(2):157-166.
McCaffrey, M. T.
1986 La Prehistoire de la Madeleine: Bilan Preliminaire. In Les Micmacs et la Mer, edited by C. A. Martijn, pp. 99-162. Recherches Amerindiennes au Quebec, Montreal.
McGhee, R., and J. A. Tuck
1975 An Archaic Sequence from the Strait of Bell Isle, Labrador. Archaeological Survey of Canada, Mercury Series, Paper 34, Ottawa.
Miller, R. F.
1997 New Records and AMS Radiocarbon Dates on Quaternary Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) from New Brunswick. Géographie de Physique et Quaternaire 51:107-111.
Miller, R. F., C. R. Harington, and R. Welch
2000 A Giant Beaver (Castoroides ohioensis Foster) Fossil from New Brunswick, Canada. Atlantic Geology 36: 1-5.
Miller, R. F. and S. A. Elias
2000 Late-Glacial Climate in the Maritimes Region, Canada, Reconstructed from Mutual Climatic Range Analysis of Fossil Coleoptera. Boreas 29:79-88.
1990 Review of Des Paleoindiens aux Iroquoiens en Gaspesie:Six Mille Ans D'Histoire, by José Benmouyal. Northeast Anthropology (40):103-104.
1990 Copper Technology in the Maritimes: an Examination of Indigenous Copper-working in the Maritime Provinces during the Protohistoric Period. B.A. Honours thesis, Department of Anthropology, Saint Mary's University, Halifax.
Mott, R. J.
1975 Post-glacial History and Environments in Southwestern New Brunswick. Proceedings of the Nova Scotia Institute of Science 27, Supplement 3:67-82.
1994 Wisconsinan Late-Glacial Environmental Change in Nova Scotia: A Regional Synthesis. Journal of Quaternary Science 9(2):155-160.
Mott, R. J., D. R. Grant, R. Stea, and S. Occhietti
1986 Late-Glacial Climatic Oscillation in Atlantic Canada Equivalent to the Allerød/Younger Dryas Event. Nature 323:247-250.
Mott, R. J., J. V. Matthews, Jr., D. R. Grant, and G. J. Beke
1986 A Late Glacial Buried Organic Profile near Brookside, Nova Scotia. In Current Research, Part B, Geological Survey of Canada, Paper 86-1B, pp. 289-294.
Murphy, B. M.
1998 Researching the Early Holocene of the Maritime Provinces. M.A. thesis, Department of Anthropology, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's.
Nash, R. J.
1976 Discoveries at Ingonish Island. Cape Breton's Magazine 14:13-14.
Nash, R. J, and F. L. Stewart
1990 Melanson: A Large Micmac Village in Kings County, Nova Scotia. Curatorial Report 67, Nova Scotia Museum, Halifax.
Newby, P., J. Bradley, A. Spiess, B. Shuman, and P. Leduc
2005 A Paleoinidan response to Younger Dryas climate change. Quaternary Science Reviews 24:141-154.
Pelletier, B. G., and B. S. Robinson
2005 Tundra, ice and a Pleistocene cape on the Gulf of Maine: a case of Paleoindian transhumance. Archaeology of Eastern North America 33:163-176.
Petersen, J. B., R. N. Barone, and B. J. Cox
2000 The Varney Farm Site and the Late Paleoindian Period in Northeastern North America. Archaeology of Eastern North America 28:113-140.
Pielou, E. C.
1991 After the Ice Age: The Return of Life to Glaciated North America. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Ries, H., and J. Keele
1911 The Clay and Shale Deposits of Nova Scotia and Portions of New Brunswick. Canada Department of Mines, Geological Survey Branch, Memoir 16-E. Government Printing Bureau, Ottawa.
Rutherford, D. E.
1990 Reconsidering the Middlesex Burial Phase in the Maine-Maritimes Region. Canadian Journal of Archaeology 14:169-181.
1991 Continuity of Moorehead Phase Populations in New Brunswick and Maine. Proceedings of the 1990 Algonquian Conference, St. John's, pp. 329-336.
Sabina, A. P.
1965 Rock and Mineral Collecting in Canada, Volume III: New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland. Geological Survey of Canada, Miscellaneous Report 8. Department of Mines and Technical Surveys, Ottawa.
Sanger, D., and D. C. Kellogg
1992 Early Holocene Occupation at the Blackman Stream Site, Central Maine. In Early Holocene Occupation in Northern New England, edited by B. S. Robinson, J. B. Petersen and A. K. Robinson, pp. 149-161. Occasional Publications in Maine Archaeology 9, Augusta.
Scott, D. B., F. S. Medioli, and A. Miller
1987 Holocene Sea Levels, Paleoceanography, and Late Glacial Ice Configuration near the Northumberland Strait, Maritime Provinces. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 24:668-675.
1980 The Prehistory of New England. Academic Press, New York.
Spiess, A. E.
1996 Two Isolated Paleoindian Artifacts from Maine. Archaeology of Eastern North America 16:65-74.
Spiess, A. E., M. L. Curran, and J. R. Grimes
1985 Caribou (Rangifer tarnadus L.) Bones from New England Paleoindian Sites. North American Archaeologist 6(2):145-159.
Spiess, A. E., and M. Hedden
2000 Avon: A Small Paleoindian Site in the Western Maine Foothills. Archaeology of Eastern North America 28:63-79.
Spiess, A. E., J. Mosher, K. Callum, and N. Asch Sidell
1995 Fire on the Plains: The Hedden Paleoindian Site in Kennebunk, Maine. Maine Archaeological Society Bulletin 35(1):13-52.
Spiess, A. E. and D. Wilson
1987 Michaud: A Palaeo-Indian Site in the New England-Maritimes Region. The Maine Historical Commission and the Maine Archaeological Society, Occasional Publications in Maine Archaeology 6, Augusta.
1989 Paleoindian Lithic Distribution in the New England-Maritimes Region. In Eastern Paleoindian Lithic Resource Use, edited by C. J. Ellis and J. C. Lothrop, pp. 75-97. Westview, Boulder.
Spiess, A., D. Wilson, and J. Bradley
1998 Paleoindian Occupation in the New England-Maritime Region: Beyond Cultural Ecology. Archaeology of Eastern North America 26:201-264.
Stea, R. R.
2001 Late-Glacial Stratigraphy and History of the Gulf of St. Lawrence: Discussion. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 38:479-482.
Stea, R. R. and R. J. Mott
1998 Deglaciation of Nova Scotia: Stratigraphy and Chronology of Lake Sediment Cores and Buried Organic Sections. Géographie de Physique et Quaternaire 52:3-21.
Storck, P. L. and A. E. Spiess
1994 The Significance of New Faunal Identifications Attributed to an Early Paleoindian (Gainey Complex) Occupation at the Udora Site, Ontario, Canada. American Antiquity 59(1):121-142.
Stuckenrath, R., Jr.
1966 The Debert Archaeological Project, Nova Scotia: Radiocarbon Dating. Quaternaria 8:75-80/
Struiver, M., and H. W. Borns, Jr.
1975 Late Quaternary Marine Invasion of Maine: Its Chronology and Associated Crustal Movement. Geographical Society of America Bulletin 86:99-104
Tuck, J. A.
1984 Maritime Provinces Prehistory. National Museum of Man, Ottawa.
Turnbull, C. J.
1974 The Second Fluted Point from New Brunswick. Man in the Northeast 7:109-110.
Turnbull, C. J., and P. Allen
1978 More Paleo-Indian Points from New Brunswick. Man in the Northeast 15/16:147-153.
1988 Review of "Maritime Provinces Prehistory" by James A. Tuck. Canadian Journal of Archaeology 12:250-260.
Whitehead, R. H.
1991 The Protohistoric Period in the Maritime Provinces. In Prehistory of the Maritime Provinces: Past and Present Research, edited by M. Deal and S. Blair, pp. 227-258. Council of Maritime Premiers, Fredericton.
Wright, J. V.
1995 A History of the Native People of Canada. V. 1 (10,000-1,000 B.C.), V. 2 (1,000-A.D. 500), V. 3 (A.D. 300-European Contact). Canadian Museum of Civilization, Ottawa.
Back to Course Schedule