Children, computers, and learning:
these are the themes Papert weaves together in The Children's
Machine. According to Papert, we are entering the "age of learning"
during which time the "competitive ability is the ability to learn".
It is the revolution in technology that has simultaneously brought
about the need for improvements in learning as well as providing the
opportunity to improve "learning environments". New technologies will
enhance learning particularly for children through "the creation of
personal media capable of supporting a wide range of intellectual
Unfortunately however, as Papert concludes, this prophesy
for the future
of learning faces one major obstacle: schools.
Education, as he sees it "remains largely committed to the
educational philosophy of the late nineteenth and early twentieth
centuries" and attempts to "impose a single way of knowing on everyone".
Tests, "segregation by age", teachers as technicians who mould
passive minds, and an emphasis
on reading as the "essential route to knowledge" are the prime characteristics of
today's education system.
Schools use a "Gothic Cathedral model of learning" with the
who will specify a plan (...) for the placement of 'knowledge bricks'
in childrens' minds". Knowledge is transmitted
"through a pipeline from teacher to student" and is "treated like money,
to be put away in a bank for the future".
Schools practise discrimination and actually impede learning by emphasizing
"abstract-formal knowledge" and by using an
"epistemology of precision"
on students being "precisely right" and that considers knowledge
if it lacks precision.
Papert's philosophy of learning contrasts sharply
with his depiction of schools' epistemology. According to Papert, schools should favour a more
"partial", "qualitative", "interconnected" "personal", "concrete",
"intuitive" "nonformalized" way of knowing. He draws on the field of Cybernetics
with its epistemology of "managed vagueness" that considers "ways to make the best
use of limited knowledge".
"Bricolage" or tinkering is the idea he evokes to describe an image of
"improvisational" learning with "self-directed activities" that
ressemble play and that simulate "the way children learn in non-school settings".
Papert uses the term "contructionism" to brand his favoured approach
to learning. "Constructionism is built on
the assumption that children will do best by finding ("fishing") for themselves the specific knowledge they need. Organized or
informal education can help most by making sure they are supported
morally, psychologically, materially, and intellectually in their
efforts." (p.139) As such, "the goal is to teach in such a way as to produce the
most learning for the least teaching".
Constructionism differs from
constructivism in that "it looks more closely than
other educational -isms at the idea of mental construction.
It attaches special importance to the role of constructions in the
world as a support for those in the head, thereby becoming
less of a purely mentalist doctrine."(p.143) As examples of constructionist
learning activities, Papert refers, amongst others, to measuring quantities while making a cake, building with Lego
working with the computer programming language LOGO developed specifically
by Papert and
collegues for educational use.
Papert's philosophy of learning
and his constructionist approach rely on the computer for realization.
He posits that the computer, and particularly, its future development,
will change "children's relationship with knowledge" producing a
revolution comparable to that of the "advent of printing and writing".
He imagines a
machine he refers to as "The Knowledge Machine" which would allow children a rich exploration of the world.
Primitive examples of this Knowledge Machine would include
"interactive video", "electronic books" and "virtual reality"
While the computer offers "new opportunites to craft
alternatives", moving from the present epistemology and approach in schools
will, in Papert's view, require "megachange". "Little schools", involvement of community,
encouragement of educational "diversity", decentralization, fostering of personal teaching styles,
and the involvement of parents, teachers and students: these are
to be the prime ingredients of change to embark on the
revolution necessary to move into "the age of learning".
Writings on the theme of educational reform are abundant and Papert
is not the first to link computer use
with educational reform. Even his critique of the present educational
echoes the criticisms of the behavourist/objectivist approach with which we are well familiar.
What makes Papert's
perspective unique and valuable however, is
his insistence on focusing on epistemology and on a theory of learning
as the starting point for educational reform. In this sense,
educational reform, Papert style
will indeed require a revolution- a revolution in thinking
Whether or not Papert's Knowledge Machine or his little schools
become a reality will constitute less of an imperative in terms of
change than will
our ability to reconceptualize learning. Rethinking our conceptions
of learning to accommodate Papert's perspective
will require relinquishing some of the control and formalization
that we insist on building into education. Relinquishing control may
prove challenging given that change in education at the turn of the
millennium appears to be driven
economic imperatives than by pedagogical or philosophical concerns.
Increasing demands for accountability will likely lead to more testing,
more top-down planning and to a curriculum-driven style of schooling
- exactly that which Papert believes we need less of.
Rethinking our theory of learning and of knowledge may well be the
best way to reform education. Ironically, the best way is often the
Reform has traditionally focused on changing the curriculum, adopting
alternative methods or new tools. Yet Papert's reform looks beyond this
level and demands fundamentally rethinking our role as educators,
how we behave, what we believe about knowledge and learning,
and what we do. In this sense,
the revolution he calls
for is a very personal one. It requires not so much that schools
change but that we, as educators, teachers and parents, change.
Essentially, this is the most important lesson to be learned from The Children's Machine.